Russian Breast Cancer.
Health Strategy.

Alternative therapy for breast cancer (#6).

Acid-base and electrolyte modulation.

From the point of view of chemistry, the human body is a 30% aqueous solution, saturated with various simple and complex molecules, and which is in their certain balance. Inadequate mineral status of the aquatic environment of the body can be one of the main causes of the most common human diseases, and in addition, it can aggravate them.

Acid-base balance.

Acidity and alkalinity of the body. The chemistry of biological processes differs from the chemistry of inanimate nature in that the reactions in it proceed in the presence of specific proteins – enzymes.

Enzymes make it possible to repeatedly increase the rate of biochemical reactions, and sometimes even make them possible. In addition, enzymes allow certain processes to occur only where they are needed at the moment. That is, instead of chaos, they provide reasonable controllability of these reactions. However, enzymes work effectively only in a certain range of temperature and acidity.

To maintain adequate acidity of the biological environment, a balance is needed between the supply/production of negatively charged ions and positively charged ones (mainly protons). Buffer systems, lungs and kidneys play a key role in maintaining a healthy balance between acidity and alkalinity. The lungs through the exhaled air very quickly remove carbon dioxide from the body, which increases the acidity of the blood. And the kidneys regulate the acid-base balance more slowly, removing acidic substances through the urine.

Several other mechanisms are involved in this complex system of maintaining acid-base balance. For example, the protein structures of the body, having alkaline or acidic groups, are able to donate protons or vice versa, temporarily accept them for storage. In addition, with an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood, it creates increased acidity, this increases the ability of hemoglobin to release oxygen, which reduces this acidity. At the same time, breathing also quickens, due to which carbon dioxide is excreted due to increased ventilation of the lungs. An increase or decrease in the production of organic acids is also able to some extent to stabilize the acidity of the blood *.

The direction in which the acidity of the tissues and organs of the body will incline depends not only on the function of the lungs and kidneys, but also on the intake of acid- and alkali-forming elements with food and drink * * * *. Alkaline food sources in the process of metabolism form cations, i.e. positively charged sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. And acid sources form anions, i.e. negatively charged ions such as phosphate (PO4), sulfate (SO4), chloride (Cl).

Acid load of staple foods Open in new window

Animal products such as meat, eggs, and cheese are high in phosphorus, sulfur amino acids (cysteine, methionine, and taurine), and cationic amino acids (lysine and arginine), which greatly increase cation production. In addition, table salt greatly exacerbates the acid load caused by their consumption *.

And plant-based foods like greens, vegetables, and to a lesser extent fruits and nuts are high in potassium, magnesium, and calcium, which increases anion production. The diet of the modern European creates a tangible and stable imbalance towards acids. For this reason, an increase in the acidity of the body (acidosis) occurs several times more often than an increase in its alkalinity (alkalosis). Among the non-nutritional causes of high acid load, psychological stress is most often cited.

Virtually all degenerative conditions and diseases, including cardiovascular, type II diabetes * *, gallbladder and kidney stones * *, caries, osteoporosis *, arthritis, fatty liver *, chronic kidney disease * *, muscle wasting * *, hypertension * and, finally, total mortality *, are associated with increased acidity of body tissues *.

Increased acid load caused by acidic foods is a significant risk factor for cancer, including breast cancer. Conversely, an alkaline diet may be protective*. A comparison of several groups of women with different dietary patterns shows that the group with the most acidic diet versus the group with the most alkaline diet has a 1.7 and 2.2 times higher risk of ER and TNBC cancer subtypes, respectively *.

Naturally, an increased acid load also increases the level of systemic inflammation, as evidenced by a significant increase in plasma levels of C-reactive protein *. And inflammation, in turn, stimulates the development of cancer. Thus, food-induced acid load may contribute to disease recurrence in women who have successfully tolerated treatment *.

Acidity of blood, tissues and environments. The measure of acidity is determined by the pH (potential hydrogen) * indicator, which reflects the amount of protons in the solution. The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution, and vice versa. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 and is logarithmic, i.e. a decrease in pH value by 1 unit means an increase in the number of protons (increase in acidity) by 10 times. A pH value of 7 is neutral. Values above 7 are alkaline and below 7 are acidic.

pH scale

Different areas in the body have significant differences in acidity, and it is at those in which the enzymes present in them work most effectively. For example, the environment of the stomach, compared to others, is very acidic so that food protein can be broken down with an enzyme called pepsin. The environment of the duodenum, on the contrary, is very alkaline, in order to be able to break down fats with an enzyme called lipase.

Different areas in the body have significant differences in acidity, and it is at those in which the enzymes present in them work most effectively. For example, the environment of the stomach, compared to others, is very acidic so that food protein can be broken down with an enzyme called pepsin. The environment of the duodenum, on the contrary, is very alkaline, in order to be able to break down fats with an enzyme called lipase.

As you can see, the acidity of cells and the acidity of their environment are two different things. The same can be said about the acidity of tissues and the acidity of biological fluids, about the acidity of the blood and the acidity of tissues, about the acidity of intracellular and extracellular. When it comes to the acidity of the body, it refers to the acidity of the fluid surrounding tissue cells. And not about the acidity of the blood, as they sometimes try to present.

A healthy human arterial blood acidity is ~ 7.4±0.05 on the pH scale. Those. it is slightly shifted to the alkaline side relative to the neutral pH of 7.0. The slightly alkaline environment of the blood ensures an adequate supply of oxygen to the cells and their adequate metabolism. The acidity index of venous blood is pH 7.36, the same acidity index in the extracellular fluid. The indicator of normal acidity inside tissue cells is slightly lower – pH 7.1-7.3, but it still remains in the alkaline region in order to be able to carry oxygen.

In the course of life processes, a large amount of alkaline and acidic substances enter the bloodstream. In the process of respiration, a large number of CO2 molecules, lactic acid, glutamic acid and succinic acid are formed. Organic acids, fermentation products of carbohydrates are absorbed from the digestive tract. As a result of many metabolic processes, molecules of phosphoric (H3PO4), sulfuric (H2SO4) and other strong acids are formed. Enhanced formation of acidic metabolic products also occurs when carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism is disturbed, when ketone bodies (acetoacetic and β-hydroxybutyric acids, acetone) appear in the blood in large quantities.

The intake of acidifying or alkalizing substances can shift the acidity index of the chemical environment in one direction or another. Even a slight change in the pH of the medium causes a change in the activity of enzymes and disruption of the normal course of biochemical processes. Mammalian cells are viable in a rather narrow range of blood acidity (pH 6.8-7.8). Going beyond these values leads to irreversible damage and death of cells and the whole organism. Permissible physiological fluctuations in blood acidity are even narrower – 0.05-0.07 pH units. Since the acidity of the blood is vital, it is probably the most strictly maintained parameter. To keep the acidity of the blood within the desired limits, the body uses some mechanisms to stabilize the acidity of the blood.

A quick response to a disturbing acid or alkaline factor occurs due to chemicals present in the blood, which are called buffers. Alkaline buffers instantly quench sudden excess acidity, and acid buffers – excess alkalinity. A typical example of a mineral alkaline buffer is ordinary baking soda, and an organic alkaline buffer is hemoglobin contained in the blood in sufficient quantities. They reduce acidity quickly and directly by a direct chemical reaction. In the meantime, the kidneys, if they are not overloaded and working adequately, gradually remove acidic products along with the urine. When more acids are produced than the kidneys can excrete, a condition called metabolic acidosis occurs.

Buffer reserves in the blood are large enough to cope with normal acid-base disturbances. In healthy people, homeostasis mechanisms are able to maintain a stable level of hydrogen ions or bicarbonate at an acid load of no more than ~ 1 mmol/kg per day. The higher acid loads that the modern diet generates result in some elevated blood acid levels, albeit within the range considered normal * *. This gives rise to claims that dietary acid load is not significant. However, this is not entirely true.

Indeed, a one-time acid load can be quite safe. However, a chronic condition of high blood acidity, even within what is considered «normal» values (pH 7.35-7.4), will act detrimentally through a number of mechanisms. A high acid load contributes to kidney damage, disease, and decreased function *, which usually appears and progresses with age *. For this reason, the ability of the kidneys to maintain adequate stability of blood acidity decreases. Thus, the task of neutralizing excess acidity is increasingly shifted to alkaline buffers.

However, the reserves of buffers dissolved in the blood are not unlimited. As they begin to deplete, antacids are taken up by the blood from other sources, including interstitial fluid and other body fluids, as well as soft tissue and bone. For example, elements such as calcium are extracted from bone tissue, and sodium from the liver and stomach. It is estimated that the amount of calcium gradually lost in the urine on a modern Western diet could be 480 grams over 20 years, which corresponds to almost half of the total skeletal mass of calcium *.

A decrease in the reserves of alkaline buffers (acidosis) is observed in certain diseases (heart failure, rickets, etc.), as well as in ketosis, for example, with a ketogenic diet. Acidosis may be compensated if there is no change in blood pH. If there are many acids and they cannot be neutralized by buffer systems, then the blood pH shifts to the acid side.

Depletion of alkaline buffers in tissues means that acidic metabolic products will not be neutralized, but will be present or accumulate in the intercellular space of tissues, increasing their acidity. On the other hand, excess acid metabolites can be dumped into the tissues to avoid their excess in the blood. Both of these tendencies make the tissues of the body more acidic, causing symptoms of chronic fatigue, fatigue, and mild muscle and joint pain. Prolonged acidification of the entire body will contribute to tooth decay, osteoporosis, joint disease, and low-level systemic inflammation.

The acidity of the tissue also has a decisive influence on the appearance and development of tumor processes. An increase in the acidity of the intercellular space leads to a weakening of the activity of most enzymes, a decrease in oxygen saturation, an increase in glycolytic energy production and a drop in immunity. Acidity also affects the body's ability to absorb minerals and nutrients, the most common example of which is iodine deficiency.

An increase in extracellular acidity seems to stimulate cells, as a protective measure, to increase their intracellular alkalinity, which promotes cell division processes and is the first step in the chain of their malignant transformations.

The change in acidity in epithelial tissues also changes the composition of the microflora naturally present in them, because different types of bacteria thrive at different acidities. This, in turn, disrupts healthy host-guest collaboration, worsening the tissue microenvironment. In addition, increased acidity significantly weakens the therapeutic effect of many chemotherapy drugs, such as doxorubicin, and vice versa *.

Unfortunately, the importance of tissue acid-base balance is practically ignored by modern medical science. Surprisingly little has been published on low-level chronic acidosis.

Acid-base reversal in the tumor. A unique feature of all types of malignant cells is abnormal intracellular alkalinization with abnormal extracellular acidification. Such a pathological condition is not observed in any other diseases, except for malignant ones.

The average intracellular pH (pHi) of cancer cells is approximately 0.1-0.2 units higher than that of normal cells, regardless of body organ *. And the average extracellular pH (pHe) in tumors is usually 0.3-0.7 units lower than in normal tissues *. Those, in total, the difference between pHe and pHi can change by a whole unit.

Acid-base reverse

Even a slight change in the pHe/pHi ratio can seriously affect many biological and chemical processes in cells * * and ultimately lead to the proliferation, aggressiveness and migration of cancer cells *. A temporary decrease in intracellular acidity is observed during mitosis, favoring the processes of cell division. However, in the case of a malignant tumor, it becomes chronic and, apparently, is the earliest and decisive factor in malignant transformations *.

In general, reduced intracellular acidity with increased acidity of the tumor microenvironment promotes the transition from precancerous disease of the milk ducts to invasive breast cancer *. And increased extracellular acidity enhances the ability of cancer cells to invade, migrate, and metastasize.

High intratumoral acidity renders cancer cells resistant to a large proportion of weakly alkaline chemotherapy drugs (such as doxorubicin and vinblastine); reduces oxygen saturation of the tumor; causes increased activity of pumps that remove drugs into cells; weakens the action of most enzymes and prevents immune damage to cancer cells * *.

Cancer cannot exist in an alkaline, oxygen-rich environment where enzymes and immune cells function normally. Therefore, the restoration of natural acid-base balance opens up a new promising direction for the prevention and treatment of cancer, which is inexpensive, targeted, and compatible with almost all currently used chemotherapeutic protocols.

Acid-base correction in cancer can include both intracellular acidification of cancer cells and extracellular alkalinization of tumor tissue. It can be carried out both indirectly – through the use of agents that suppress the removal of positive ions from cells, and directly – through the introduction of acidifying or alkalizing agents.

Intracellular acidification of cancer cells and bringing intracellular acidity to a normal level leads to a slowdown in their growth and a significant loss of their cancerous characteristics.

Intracellular acidification can be achieved by blocking the outflow of positive ions (cations) from the cell, due to which the pHe:pHi ratio can increase and return to normal. Further (excessive) intracellular acidification can lead cells to acid stress, and even to its death.

This task, however, is hampered by the fact that cells use several alternative mechanisms for the removal of acid metabolites. The blocking of only one of them can be compensated by the increased work of the others. Therefore, effective intracellular acidification (pH reduction) requires a combination of substances that inhibit the most active cation exporters.

For a short-term course (1-3 months) – both as an independent and as an adjunct therapy, a combination of the following non-toxic substances tested by practice can be considered:

Celecoxib (200 mg/day) acetazolamide, an anti-inflammatory agent – as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAIX);

Omeprazole (10 mg/day), an antiulcer agent – as an inhibitor of the proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase);

Quercetin (2 g/day), food component – as a weak inhibitor of lactic acid transporter 1;

Simvastatin (20 mg/day), an anticholesterol agent, as a weak inhibitor of lactic acid transporter 4;

Amiloride (5 mg/day), a potassium-sparing diuretic – as an inhibitor of the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE);

Phenytoin (100 mg/day), an anticonvulsant, as a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) inhibitor.

Extracellular alkalinization of the tumor zone can be achieved not only by retaining cations in cells, but also by their extracellular neutralization, as well as increased blood supply and, as a result, improved delivery of alkaline elements into the tumor. Increasing the intake of natural physiological alkaline buffers can raise the pH level in the tumor without a noticeable effect on the pH of normal tissue, and even more so of blood *.

Sodium bicarbonate (up to 35g/day *) – baking soda (NaHCO3) appears to be the best natural alkaline source available either by mouth or by injection. For oral administration, take 1 teaspoon of soda for 0.5-1 glass of water up to 5 times a day * * 30 minutes before meals or 2 hours after it. The dosage of bicarbonate should not raise the pH of the urine more than 7.5-8.

Bicarbonate combines with a proton (hydrogen ion) to form water and carbon dioxide, non-toxic endogenous products that are easily excreted from the body. In ER-grafted metastatic mammary tumor mice, consumption of soda in drinking water (human equivalent of 12.5 g of bicarbonate per day) selectively increased the pH of the extracellular fluid in the tumor, as well as reduced the formation of spontaneous metastases * and increased the survival of animals *. But despite this, oral administration of bicarbonate alone in animal experiments was unable to inhibit the growth of the primary tumor.

However, dietary bicarbonate supplementation in mice induced extracellular tumor alkalinization and resulted in a significant increase in the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin against grafted mammary tumor (MCF-7) *. And intraperitoneal injections of bicarbonate caused more than a 4.5-fold increase in the death of breast cancer cells in mice when treated with mitoxantrone *.

Sodium citrate (up to 35 g/day *), potassium bicarbonate, magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate, potassium ascorbate and mixtures thereof have a similar effect. However, among all the compounds considered, only sodium bicarbonate is a natural alkaline buffer that does not require additional clinical study.

Unfortunately, ingesting this much baking soda is not only disgusting, but can also lead to electrolyte imbalances and negative side effects due to the severe excess of sodium. This can be avoided by taking a balanced complex of extracellular (sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, chloride) and intracellular (potassium, magnesium, phosphates, sulfates) electrolytes.

However, the oral administration of alkaline elements is questionable due to the large amount of acidic buffers present in the blood, which can completely cancel out the alkalizing effect of any supplement. It would be more efficient to deliver alkaline agents locally instead of over-saturating the entire body with them. The infamous Dr. Tullio Simoncini suggested the injection of sodium bicarbonate. His treatment protocol is as follows *:
- Imagine a semicircle around the site of the tumor, and mark the points corresponding to 11:00 and 13:00 on the clock face.
- Inject 70-100 ml of 5% sodium bicarbonate at these points daily for 6 days.
- After that, proceed to intravenous administration of 500 ml of 5% sodium bicarbonate: 6 days of administration and 6 days without it, 4 cycles in total.
- After 1-2 months, if the tumor has not disappeared completely, repeat the course of treatment.
- In case of fatigue and thirst, take plenty of mineralized water.
- If bruising or irritation occurs, take a break from treatment for 1-2 days.
- If one of them persists, inject 5% sodium bicarbonate 70-100 ml around it every day for six days.
Side effects: pain and swelling of the breast. The pain lasts a few minutes, swelling – many days or even 1-2 months. If there are palpable lymph nodes in the armpit, they may regress after treatment.

Simoncini's creative initiatives did not find wide support among the medical community, and he himself was subject to legal prosecutions that were associated with the deaths of patients following the application of his treatment protocol.

Basenpulver® is a complex of alkaline salts with a wide range of buffering action. Contains potassium bicarbonate, calcium orthophosphate, magnesium orthophosphate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, magnesium citrate, sodium selenite. Dosage: 3-4 full teaspoons (25-30 g) dissolved in 2 glasses of water, but no more. The solution is taken no earlier than 15 minutes after eating, and washed down with plenty of water. With the appearance of negative side effects, the dosage is reduced. Melanoma mice treated with an aqueous solution of Basenpulver reduced tumor acidity and halved the rate of tumor growth *.

Multiforce® is a multi-mineral alkaline complex that contains potassium bicarbonate, magnesium phosphate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, magnesium citrate, dicalcium phosphate. Six teaspoons of the complex provides the full daily requirement of all these minerals, regardless of how much they are taken with food. A clinical study showed that taking 2 teaspoons (15 g) of Multiforce powder daily for a month reduced the inflammation of osteoarthritis in patients, which may indirectly indicate a decrease in tissue acidity *.

Catholyte water (the so-called «living water»). Electroactivated alkaline water reduces tissue acidity and increases the activity of metabolic processes due to reduced acidity and increased negative redox potential (ORP) of activated water. The ORP value characterizes the ability of a substance to attach electrons; the more negative the ORP value of water, the richer it is in electrons and the stronger its antioxidant capacity.

Electroactivated alkaline water is produced in special facilities from mineralized water and is consumed as a supplement or instead of ordinary drinking water, i.e. in volumes of 0.25-1 L/day. The ORP of electrically treated water drops very quickly, so it is taken immediately after preparation.

Electrical treatment of water using an electrolyzer makes it possible to achieve a pH value of 9-10, which is an order of magnitude higher than the pH value achieved by mineral additives; in particular through the use of calcium bicarbonate (pH 8.5). The water collected after electrolysis at the cathode (negative pole) increases the concentration of negative ions (anions) in the solution. Mice fed electrically alkaline water pH 10.5 showed inhibition of prostate tumor development statistically comparable to mice fed bicarbonate water *.

The cost of catholyte water is several times higher than bicarbonate water, and their therapeutic effect is approximately equivalent *. However, if catholyte water saturates the body with hydrogen, then sodium bicarbonate saturates the body with sodium, which will negatively affect the balance of electrolytes.

Just as with the use of bicarbonate water *, the therapeutic effect of electroactivated water was found to be much weaker than its preventive effect. To obtain electroactivated water with a pH of 10.5, NaCl and KOH are dissolved in the source water in a ratio of 1:300, but the use of multimineral complexes instead will significantly enrich the electrolyte diversity of the treated water.

An adjusted diet low in protein and high in potassium and/or magnesium * may be as successful as alkalizing agents. For example, potassium is able to effectively neutralize excess acidity through the formation of KHCO3 or the reduction of glutamine *. An analysis of over 300'000 cases shows that the risk of developing pancreatic cancer is reduced by 18% with every additional 100 mg/day of magnesium *.

Despite widespread skepticism, alkaline therapy has been shown to be beneficial in clinical trials. So, potassium citrate (40 mEq/day) reduces the loss of bone mass of bone mass *, which may indirectly indicate that the bone tissue is filled with an alkaline buffer. It would be logical to assume that the rest of the tissues of the body, especially those affected by acidification, also improve their acid-base balance.

An alkaline diet supplemented with oral sodium bicarbonate (3.0-5.0 g/day) in addition to chemotherapy increased the median overall survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer by 1.5–3 times compared with patients receiving chemotherapy alone * *. Here, the diet included a daily intake of 400 g of fruits and vegetables and the rejection of meat and dairy products.

Finally, as early as 1984, limited uncontrolled studies were conducted on cancer patients, where rubidium and cesium salts were used as alkalizing agents. In all cases the tumor masses disappeared *. Unfortunately, over the past 37 years, this cheap therapy has not attracted the attention of researchers.

Complex acidity management management combines intracellular acidification, extracellular alkalinization, as well as mitochondrial and lysosomal toxins, which, through various mechanisms, complement and enhance each other's action. Since we see a double violation of acid states (extracellular acidification and intracellular alkalization), then they should also be eliminated simultaneously.

To enhance the therapeutic effect, the two lists listed above can be added:

- mitochondrial toxins:

Doxycycline (100 mg/day), an antibiotic – as an inhibitor of mitochondrial protein production;

Atovaquone (1'000 mg/day) *, an antimalarial, or artesunate (200 mg/day) or other artemisin substances as inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration;

Metformin (500 mg/day), hypoglycemic agent – as an activator of lactic acid production and an inhibitor of cellular energy production;

- lysosomal toxins:

Ciprofloxacin (1'000 mg/day), an antibiotic – as an inhibitor of cellular energy production and apoptosis enhancer.

Other lysosomal inhibitors such as chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine may also be used *.

Acid-base correction

However, the problem of delivery and saturation of the tumor with active substances remains, due to increased pressure and poor vascular flow of fluid inside the tumor.

Iontophoresis * may be a promising way to reduce tumor acidity. Negative ions, moving under the action of an electric field, are able to overcome the mechanical stress of the tumor and penetrate inside it, neutralizing the acidity of the tissue.

For the iontophoresis procedure, the cathode pad moistened with a soda solution is placed over the tumor, and the anode pad moistened with a mineral water solution is placed on the opposite side of the body or, in the case of a shallow tumor, at a distance of up to 10-15 cm from the cathode. As a result of the passage of a constant electric current through soft tissues, the internal fluids of the body, which are 70-80% water, undergo electrolysis, forming positively and negatively charged ions.

In the area near the anode (positive pole), tissue hydration and hydrogen ions are observed, accompanied by an increase in acidity, and the release of gaseous oxygen and chlorine. In the area of the cathode (negative pole), dehydration of tissues and hydroxide ions are observed, accompanied by a decrease in acidity, and the release of gaseous hydrogen. The electrical potential difference causes the positive ions to leave the tumor and migrate towards the cathode. The electrochemical picture of what is happening resembles the process that occurs in devices for the electroactivation of water; only here, local tissue fluid is used as a solution.

The flow of electrons migrating from the cathode deep into the tissue forms anions and neutralizes cations that create high acidity in the extracellular space. Thus, a local decrease in the acidity of the tumor occurs. Saturation of the tissue with cations near the cathode occurs due to their depletion in other tissues. However, due to the fact that healthy tissue has much better fluid movement compared to the tumor, this depletion can be compensated by taking solutions containing cationic electrolytes.

At the same time, alkaline elements can be transported to the area of the glycolytic tumor, which will reduce extracellular acidity. The duration of the electrophoresis procedure is up to 3-5 hours at a current density of 0.15-0.3 mА/cm2. Sessions are carried out for 6-12 weeks in the non-therapeutic period. The only but fundamental disadvantage of electrophoresis is that the penetration of active substances under the action of an electric field is limited to a few millimeters.

Acid-base modulation has a good theoretical basis; successful preclinical trials; low cost, availability, low toxicity and study of therapeutic agents. However, it requires constant monitoring of the electrolyte balance, as well as the overall acidity of the tissue, at least in terms of urine acidity (short-term response) and saliva acidity (long-term response).

Electrolyte balance.

Electrolytes are chemicals that regulate important physiological functions in the body. These are bicarbonate, sodium, chlorides, magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphates. When dissolved in water, electrolytes form positively and negatively charged ions (respectively, cations and anions), creating an electrically conductive medium. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium form cations, and sulfates, nitrates, phosphates, fluorides and chlorides form anions.

   Table of chemical elements Enlarge Image

A healthy biological environment of the cell depends primarily on the acid-base balance, mineral balance, redox potential and conductivity, which is determined by the concentration of various electrolytes in body tissues.

An adequate ratio of extracellular and intracellular electrolytes is necessary to maintain cell volume, as well as to transport certain substances through the cell membrane.

Electrolyte imbalances can affect the functioning of the heart  *, nervous system * and cellular functions *. This mainly concerns the ratio of intracellular electrolytes (potassium, magnesium) to extracellular electrolytes (sodium, calcium).

However, a 2020 large-scale clinical study found that 53% of breast cancer patients had an acid-base imbalance or at least one electrolyte abnormality at the time of hospitalization *. The most commonly missing minerals were magnesium (15% of all cases), calcium (12%), phosphorus (12%), potassium (11%) and sodium (8%); and chlorine was excessive (12%). Of course, this study does not prove that the risk of disease is related to electrolyte imbalance, but it does raise questions about the prevalence of this serious problem.

Patients receiving anticancer treatment were more prone to acid and electrolyte imbalances. Thus, surgical intervention increased the risk of these imbalances by 1.8 times, and chemotherapy by 3 times, thereby aggravating the pathological condition of patients. Not surprisingly, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities were associated with a 7-fold increase in hospital mortality and with an increase in hospital stay.

Balance of alkaline elements (potassium and sodium). The diet of a modern person contains too small volumes of plant foods, which are the main source of potassium. It is assumed that the human diet of the Paleolithic period provided a potassium:sodium ratio of approximately 5:1 *. An adequate ratio of intake of potassium:sodium is 3.5:1, and should not be lower than 1.5:1, while the modern diet has the opposite ratio *.

WHO recommends limiting salt intake to 5 grams per day *, however, with widespread low potassium intake from vegetables, following this recommendation will inevitably lead to a serious potassium:sodium imbalance.

The human body is genetically tuned by evolution to consume large amounts of potassium from plant foods, so it easily loses it through sweat and urine. On the other hand, there is too much sodium in modern food, which comes from table salt. And which the body tries to keep due to the lack of sodium in plant foods. As a result, conditions are created in the body for an excess of sodium and an abnormal ratio of potassium to sodium.

On this basis, it is easy to see that the alkalinizing therapy with sodium bicarbonate discussed above will inevitably cause an imbalance between potassium and sodium, unless sodium is balanced by an appropriate amount of potassium, for example in the form of potassium citrate. But even without recourse to this therapy, the diet of a modern person creates such a serious imbalance of potassium and sodium that it makes one seriously consider taking potassium in the form of supplements. And even better – about increasing the consumption of plant foods.

The most rich in potassium are food sources such as banana, potato, as well as dried fruits – figs, dried apricots, dates, raisins, prunes. From this point of view, freshly squeezed juices are a healthier drink than pure water, which only removes potassium from the body. This refers to vegetable juices rich in potassium, not fruit juices rich in sugar.

Balance of alkaline earth elements (magnesium and calcium). Calcium and magnesium are chemical twins, but at the same time biochemical antagonists. While magnesium promotes blood flow and protects against the formation of blood clots leading to heart attacks and strokes, calcium, on the contrary, helps to thicken the blood and prevent blood loss. While calcium contracts muscles and excites the nervous system, magnesium promotes muscle relaxation. Magnesium exhibits anti-apoptotic properties, while calcium is pro-apoptotic.

Mice with Lewis lung carcinoma fed a magnesium-deficient diet significantly slowed the growth of the primary tumor (up to 70%). However, at the same time, magnesium deficiency increased metastatic potential (by 22%) *. This indicates the importance of controlling the level and ratio of both of these elements.

For women, an adequate calcium:magnesium intake ratio should be approximately 2.5:1. With their optimal ratio, calcium is successfully absorbed and migrates from tissues to bones, strengthening the teeth and skeleton. With a deficiency of magnesium in the body, calcium leaves the bones and replaces magnesium in the tissues. This not only weakens teeth and bones – calcium in the form of phosphates, oxalates and salts of other organic acids is deposited in organs and on the walls of blood vessels. As a result, the risk of arthrosis, stroke, heart attack, cardiovascular diseases, arrhythmias, hypertension, kidney and gallbladder stones increases. The tumor zone of the mammary gland is also mineralized, which contributes to the advancement of cancer *.


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