Russian Breast Cancer.
Health Strategy.


Control marks.

It would be wrong and irresponsible to correct the work of the body blindly, without a laboratory analysis of its condition.

Key health indicators * that every person should know are listed below. Here are both the average (reference) values for most mature women *, and the optimal values ​​to strive for. Screening should be done annually to keep up-to-date on your health status and analyze trends.

It is worth noting that different laboratories may have different reference values *, and what is within the acceptable range for one laboratory may be outside the acceptable range for another.

Considering the results of the analyzes, one should not be satisfied with the fact that they are «in the range» of normality. In fact, readings near the lower or upper end of the «normal» range may be associated with risk for various diseases. So-called «normal» reference ranges may not reveal subtle health problems *. They are established on the basis of the normal distribution curve of the results obtained in a relatively small sample of the so-called «healthy» people in the entire population * who actually have, or will soon have, widespread health problems. This means that ranges that are «normal» for the population on average do not necessarily reflect truly healthy ranges.

In other words, what is considered «normal» is not always so. «Normality» in this case is a statistical concept, not a physiological one. If the majority of the population is overweight, then your excess weight will also be «in the normal range». But it will not be optimal and safe at all. Thus, we should strive for better performance than just the average between the upper and lower limits.

Changes in hormone levels, indicators of inflammation or blood pressure with age do not mean at all that this should be taken for granted and put up with it as an inevitable natural phenomenon. They are pathological and should be treated in the same way as if blood pressure increased with age.

The acidity.

The acidity of the breast tissue, if we measured it directly, would be too traumatic for daily monitoring. For this reason, it is wiser to use indirect methods. More adequately, the acidity of the tissue can be assessed by the acidity of saliva, but not by the acidity of blood and urine.

The acidity of the blood is kept at an adequate level by all means, sometimes even due to the deterioration of the acid-base state of other organs. For this reason, external acid-base disturbances will, first of all, affect not the acidity of the blood, but the acidity of the tissues. The acidity of the blood will begin to deteriorate only when the alkaline electrolytes in the tissues are depleted to a catastrophic level. Until this moment, we will not be able to identify their deficiency in the composition of the blood.

The acidity of the biological fluid secreted by some tissue may be closer to the indication of the acidity of the tissue itself. However, we cannot take breast milk for testing during periods of non-lactation. In addition, the mineral composition of breast milk seems to be as tightly controlled as that of the blood. This can be assumed from the fact that women on a vegetarian diet and women on an omnivorous diet produce breast milk with comparable concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium*. Thus, the acidity of breast milk will not objectively reflect the acidity of the female breast tissue.

The acidity of saliva on an empty stomach remains the most convenient subject for assessing the average acidity of body tissues. However, it should be borne in mind that the acidity of saliva will not exactly correspond to the acidity of the breast tissue. It will primarily reflect the acidity of the tissue of the salivary, and not the mammary glands, and therefore, most likely, will be somewhat more acidic.

Saliva reference pH values are 6.2-7.6, with an average of 6.7. However, given the magnitude of the incidence of caries and osteoporosis, the latter value can hardly be called healthy. Most likely, you should focus on a pH value of 7.0. It is at this level of acidity that there are no dental diseases *. Although there is no clinical evidence that this level of salivary acidity would be similarly associated with healthy breasts, this assumption seems logical enough.

The acidity of saliva can be measured without resorting to the services of a medical laboratory, using an electronic pH meter. Measurements using test strips of litmus paper cannot give acceptable accuracy.

1. Saliva pH measurements are best done in the morning, on an empty stomach, that is, after a period of overnight fasting. If you take measurements during the day, you can get unreliable indicators. It is convenient to combine the measurement of saliva acidity with the measurement of morning temperature, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

2. To prevent the acidity caused by the microflora of the oral cavity from affecting the accuracy of the measurement, thoroughly rinse your mouth with boiled water. Then fill your mouth with saliva and swish it around, then swallow. Repeat this one more time. After that, take some saliva and measure its acidity with a pH meter. The instrument itself must be regularly calibrated at the temperature at which it is intended to measure.

3. Record the measured pH value in your «Health Diary», and follow its dynamics. If the pH value is below 6.8, then measures should be taken to reduce the acidity. The readings measured can fluctuate greatly depending on the food or drink taken the day before, on medications, on the emotional state, physical activity and on many other factors. Therefore, when assessing the state of the body's pH, the data obtained over the past few days should be averaged.

Electrolytes in blood plasma. Measurement of electrolytes in plasma or blood serum will not be informative enough to understand their sufficiency in tissues. Potassium and magnesium are almost completely concentrated inside the cells, and their content in the blood will remain stable even if these elements are deficient in the cells. A low level of potassium and magnesium in the blood is a signal of their extremely strong general deficiency.

The analysis of electrolytes in saliva can be more objective, as it more accurately reflects the saturation of tissues with electrolytes. For understanding, the concentration of potassium in saliva can be 10 times higher than in plasma, while the concentration of sodium, on the contrary, is lower *. But, unfortunately, at the moment, conventional medical laboratories do not analyze electrolytes in saliva.

Even if the absolute values are within acceptable limits, there may be an imbalance between the electrolytes themselves. Therefore, it is worth checking also their ratios, measured in mM/L. For healthy people they are – in the blood: Ca:Mg – 2.9±0.2; K:Na – 0.03±0.5, and in saliva: Ca:Mg – 2.1±1.1; K:Na – 1.6±1.6 *.

Reference range
Optimal range
4,5 mM/L
135-145 mM/L
140 mM/L
2,2-2,55 mM/L
2,5 mM/L
0,70-0,95 mM/L
0,9 mM/L
98-107 mM/L
23-29 mM/L
0,8-1,3 mM/L

Indicators of inflammation.

Reference range
Optimal range
C-reactive protein (CRP)
0-3 mg/L
<1 mg/L
3-11 μM/L
<6-7 μM/L
190-420 mg/dL
300 mg/dL
3,5-5,5 g/dL
4,5-5,4 g/dL
Albumin:globulin ratio in blood
Gamma globulin
0,4-1,8 g/dL
Interleukin I-6
0-15,5 pg/mL
Interleukin I-8
0-66 pg/mL
Tumor necrosis factor TNF-α
0,0-2,2 pg/mL


Reference range
Optimal range
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, TSH) in serum
0,3-3 μIE/mL
1,5 μIE/mL
T3 free in serum
0,2-0,5 ng/dL
0,35 ng/dL
T4 free in serum
0,8-1,7 ng/dL
1,2 ng/dL
0-15 ng/mL
≤8 ng/mL
Serum Free Testosterone
0-9 pg/mL
2-4 pg/mL
Progesterone total in serum at the peak of the luteal phase
11-29 ng/mL
20 ng/mL
Serum free estradiol at the peak of the luteal phase
0,5-9,0 pg/mL
Estradiol total serum in the follicular phase
12-170 pg/mL
Estradiol total in serum in the ovulatory phase
80-500 pg/mL
Serum total estradiol in the luteal phase
20-200 pg/mL
Serum estradiol in postmenopausal women
≤55 pg/mL
The optimal molar ratio of estradiol:progesterone (total) at the peak of luteal phase
Serum DHEA Sulfate (DHEA-S)
30-600 μg/dL
300-400 μg/dL
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), 20-49 years in serum
24,6-122 nM/L
60-80 nM/L
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), >49 years in serum
17,3-125 nM/L
60-80 nM/L
Vitamin D total in plasma, 25(OH)D
30 ng/mL (75 nM/L)
40-50 ng/mL (100-125 nM/L)
Serum cortisol
AM: 6,2-19,4 μg/dL PM: 2,3-11,9 μg/dL

Measurement of hormone levels in saliva can give a more adequate understanding of their concentration in tissue than measurement in the blood.
Reference peak values in saliva are: for estradiol – 4.5-19 pM/L, for progesterone – 330-1'400 pM/L.
The reference value of the level of testosterone in saliva in women is 35-150 pM/L, but you should focus on the lower limit.
Reference values of cortisol in saliva at different times of the day: 8:00 AM – 0.3-2 µg/L; 12:00 – 0.03-0.8 µg/L; 16:00 – 0.03-0.55 µg/L; 23:00 – 0.03-0.5 µg/L, here you should also focus on the lower limit.
Reference values of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in saliva at 8:00 AM – 70-640 pg/L.

Health of the heart and blood vessels..

Reference range
Optimal range
Arterial pressure
110-120/70-80 mmHg
110/70 mmHg
Total cholesterol
100-200 mg/dL
150 mg/dL (4 mM/L)
Triglycerides (TG) in serum/plasma
≤160 mg/dL (1,8 mM/L)
<80 mg/dL (<0,9 mM/L)
High density lipoproteins (HDL)
1-1,5 mM/L
1,5 mM/L (58 mg/dL)
TG:HDL ratio
Coenzyme Q10
0,4-2,2 μg/mL
5-7 μg/mL *

Pancreatic health. Although fasting blood glucose levels below 99 mg/dL are still considered normal, in fact, levels above 86 mg/dL are no longer safe. High reference glucose levels are associated with the risk of cardiac, metabolic and cerebral pathologies *  *  *  *  *.

Reference range
Optimal range
Fasting insulin
2,6-8 μЕ/mL
≤4,6 μЕ/mL (≤32 рМ)
Fasting plasma glucose
60-100 mg/dL
70-85 mg/dL (3,6-5,5 mM/L)
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
<5,6 %
4,2-4,5 %  *.
Serum amylase
60-180 IE/L
Lipase in serum
0-160 IE/L

Liver health.

Reference range
Optimal range
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum
31-33 IE/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum
31-33 IE/L
AST:ALT activity ratio
Serum bilirubin total
0,3-1 mg/dL
Serum bilirubin direct
0,1-0,3 mg/dL

Kidney health.

Reference range
Optimal range
Acidity of urine on an empty stomach
pH 6,5-7,0
pH 8,0
Serum uric acid
150-300 μM/L
<200 μM/L
Serum urea
2,8-7,2 mM/L
Cystatin C in serum
0,5-1 mg/L
<0,9 mg/L
Serum creatinine
0,6-1,0 mg/dL
Blood urea nitrogen
6-20 mg/dL

The acidity index of urine pH 6.0 is still considered normal, but in fact it reflects the so-called the «normal» metabolism of the foods consumed by modern man, which is in fact abnormal (acid-forming). Acidic (pH ≤ 5.5) and neutral (pH 6.0-7.5) urine is associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to alkaline urine (pH ≥ 8.0). The adjusted hazard ratio between groups with extreme urinary acidity is an incredibly high value of 2'550 *.

You can measure the acidity of morning urine using a device that measures the pH of a solution (pH meter). With an average pH reading of 8, the risk of disease will be minimal. It can be achieved only with the help of an alkaline-forming diet (vegetable).

Blood health.

Reference range
Optimal range
Blood acidity index
pH 7,35-7,45
pH 7,4
Serum iron
30-140 μg/dL
40-100 μg/dL
Serum ferritin
12-120 ng/mL
15-45 ng/mL *.
170-370 ng/mL
300-360 ng/mL
Hemoglobin in the blood
12-16 g/dL
15 g/dL
Hematocrit (percentage of red blood cells in the blood)
35-45 %
40-45 %

Vitamins and microelements..

Reference range
Optimal range
Serum Vitamin C
0,2-2,0 mg/dL
>1,2 mg/dL
Serum Vitamin D
30-100 ng/mL
50 ng/mL
Vitamin D12 in plasma
232-1'245 pg/mL
400 pg/mL
Serum selenium
91-198 мкг/л
Serum zinc
56-134 μg/dL
>85 μg/dL

Tumor markers. Some types of cancer produce molecules called tumor markers that can be found in the blood. There are special tests to determine the level of tumor markers. However, markers are not specific; in some cases, their concentration may be increased by some other, non-tumor related sources. In other words, you can't rely on marker performance; they can only provide a basis for more thorough research by other methods.

Some molecules can also indirectly indicate a possible malignant tumor. For example, lactate dehydrogenase, the enzyme that converts pyruvate to lactic acid, typically has higher activity in cancer cells. The concentration of alkaline phosphatase increases in the cells of the liver and bones when metastases spread to them.

Reference range
Optimal range
Lactate dehydrogenase
120-225 IE/L
Alkaline phosphatase
44-147 IE/L

Tumor marker tests should always be administered and interpreted exclusively by a qualified healthcare professional.
Annual blood tests for interleukin-6 and ferritin, as well as Pap tests (once every 3 years, starting at about 21-25 years old) and colonoscopy (once a year after age 50) can help with the early detection of various hidden tumors.



Agonist. A chemical substance that, when bound to receptors, is able to activate them, thereby causing the development of a biological response characteristic of this type of receptor.

Adenoma. A benign tumor composed of epithelial cells.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP). A nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose and two phosphoric acid residues.

Alkalosis. Violation of the acid-base balance in the body, in which the ratio between anions and cations of the blood solution shifts towards an increase in cations (the blood becomes alkalized).

Allele. One of many alternative forms of the gene.

Anaerobic. Relating to the absence of oxygen or lack of need for oxygen.

Aerobic respiration. The process of generating cellular energy in mitochondria due to oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain.

Angiogenesis. The process of formation in an organ or tissue of new blood and lymphatic vessels and networks necessary for the growth of tissue cells.

Androgens. Steroid hormones produced by the gonads (testes in men and ovaries in women) and the adrenal cortex and which are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in both sexes. Men normally produce more androgens than women.

Anion. A negatively charged ion. In an electric field, it moves towards the positive electrode (anode).

Anode. An electrode connected to the positive pole of a current source. An oxidation reaction takes place at the cathode.

Antagonist. A chemical that acts within the body to counteract or block the physiological activity of another chemical. In particular, the antagonist interferes with the development of a biological response under the action of certain agonists.

Antigen. A substance (including a foreign protein) that induces a cellular level of immune response and leads to the formation of antibodies.

Antioxidants. Substances or factors that counteract the oxidation process.

Antibodies. Specialized proteins produced by lymphocytes that recognize and bind to and neutralize foreign proteins or pathogens (antigens), either directly or by marking them for destruction by other cells. Each antibody can only bind to a specific antigen.

Apoptosis. Cell death triggered by an internal mechanism due to critical changes in its metabolism and the impossibility of full functioning.

Aromatase. An enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A nucleotide consisting of adenine, a five-carbon monosaccharide of ribose, and (unlike DNA and RNA nucleotides) three phosphoric acid residues. The main source of energy in a living cell.

Acetylation. The reaction of the transfer of the acetyl group of CH3CO to lysine residues in DNA histones.

Acidosis. Violation of the acid-base balance in the body, in which the ratio between anions and cations in the blood shifts towards an increase in anions (the blood becomes acidic).

Autoimmune diseases. A condition in which the body's immune system reacts against its own tissues.

Autophagy. The process of destruction of parts of cells or whole cells by lysosomes of these cells or other cells.

Aerobic respiration. The process of generating cellular energy in the cytosol due to enzymatic reactions.


Basal membrane. A thin, cell-free protein layer that separates connective tissue from the epithelium or endothelium.

Benign tumor. Non-invasive tumor, i.e. unable to penetrate the basement membrane that lines them.

Biopsy. Taking tissue samples from a specific part of the body and further examining it in order to test it for abnormalities such as cancer.

Blood-brain barrier. A densely packed layer of cells in the capillaries is a barrier between the brain and the blood, which does not allow microorganisms and many chemicals to pass through it.

Buffer. A chemical used to keep a system acidic by absorbing hydrogen ions (which make it more acidic) or by absorbing hydroxide ions (which make it more alkaline).


Cathode. An electrode connected to the negative pole of a current source. A reduction reaction takes place at the cathode.

Cation. A positively charged ion. In an electric field, it moves towards the negative electrode (cathode).

Cancer. Growth of abnormal cells in the body with an uncontrolled and erratic pattern, invading surrounding tissues, and sometimes spreading to distant parts of the body through the blood and/or lymphatic system.

Cancer stem cells (CSC). A small subpopulation of cancer cells with high potential for self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity.

Carbohydrate. A macroelement. Chemically neutral compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates come in simple forms known as sugars and complex forms such as starches and fibers.

Carcinogenesis. The process of origin and development of a malignant tumor.

Carcinoma. A type of malignant tumor composed of epithelial cells.

Cell. The basic functional and structural unit of the human body, consisting of the nucleus, cytoplasm and outer membrane.

Cell cycle. An ordered sequence of stages that a cell goes through from one cell division to the next.

Cellular target of rapamycin (TOR). A protein that regulates a number of vital processes in the cell, including the rate of cell divisions and the rate of protein synthesis.

Chelation. The combination of a metal with an organic molecule to form a structure known as a chelate. Metal chelates can reduce or increase its bioavailability.

Chemotherapy. Using drugs or other chemicals to kill cancer cells.

Chemosensitizer. A substance that increases the susceptibility of cancer cells to chemotherapy.

Coenzymes. A molecule that binds to an enzyme and is essential to its activity, but is not permanently changed by the reaction. Many coenzymes are derived from vitamins.

Collagen. A fibrous protein that is the basis for the structure of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and other connective tissues.

Conjugate. An artificially synthesized hybrid molecule in which two molecules with different properties are connected (combined).

Complete response (CR). Disappearance of 100% of all tumor lesions; any of the enlarged lymph nodes (major or accessory) must have a short axis of less than 10 mm. Disappearance of all additional foci and normalization of the level of tumor markers for the entire observation period.

C-reactive protein (CRP). Biological marker of systemic inflammation.

Cytoplasm. The internal environment of the cell, except for the nucleus.

Cytosol. The internal environment of the cell, limited by the plasma membrane, with the exception of organelles.

Cytostatics. Cellular poisons that affect all rapidly multiplying cells. Cause necrosis of malignant cells.

Cytokines. Proteins produced by cells that influence the behavior of other cells. Cytokines act on specific cytokine receptors on the cells they affect.

Cytotoxicity. The ability of chemicals (including drugs, viruses, and antibodies) to damage or destroy tissue cells.

Cytotoxins. Antibodies that arise during immunization with cellular elements and trigger the process of apoptosis of a malignant cell.


Differentiation. The process by which cells undergo to mature into normal cells (uncontrolled reproduction of immature cells is a defining feature of cancer).

Diffusion. A passive process in which particles in solution move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

Dimer. A complex molecule made up of two simpler molecules called monomers.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The main biologically active chemical substance that determines the physical development and growth of almost all living organisms. A complex protein whose base sequence encodes the genetic information necessary for protein synthesis. It is a double strand of biopolymer twisted into a spiral.

Double blind study. A classic study in which neither the researchers nor the participants know which of the participants is receiving the experimental treatment and which is receiving the placebo.


Edema. Accumulation of excess fluid in the subcutaneous tissue.

Electron acceptor. A substance that accepts electrons (hydrogen) in the process of redox reactions.

Electron donor. A variety of compounds that can be oxidized, i.e. which are sources of electrons detached from them.

Endogenous. Having an internal, in relation to the system (organism, organ, cell), origin.

Exogenous. Having an external, in relation to the system (organism, organ, cell), origin.

Elastin. Flexible structural protein similar to collagen; found in the skin layer and other parts of the body.

Electrolytes. Ionized naturally occurring minerals found in body fluids (eg potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium). Electrolytes are needed to maintain the balance of body fluids at the right level, as well as to maintain its normal functions.

Epigenetic changes. Changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that are caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence.

Epidemiological study. A study that determines the number of cases of a disease and its prevalence among a given segment of the population.

Endocrine glands. Any gland that produces hormones directly into the bloodstream, such as the thyroid, parathyroid, anterior and posterior pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, pineal, and gonads.

Estrogens. Steroid hormones that are produced mainly by the ovarian follicular apparatus in women, and in small amounts also by the testicles in men and the adrenal cortex in both sexes. Women produce more estrogen than men.

Enzymes. Specific proteins that accelerate the biochemical reactions that take place in living organisms, and at the same time do not change themselves.

Extracellular matrix (ECM). Protein extracellular tissue structures that provide mechanical support to cells and the transport of chemicals.

Ex vivo. Literally, «out of life». A study that uses living cells or tissues taken from a living organism and grown in a laboratory over a period of days or weeks. Such cells serve as conditional models of the behavior of the organism as a whole.


Fibrin. High molecular weight, non-globular protein formed from plasma fibrinogen under the action of the thrombin enzyme; forms clots that form the basis of a blood clot during blood clotting.

Fibrosis. Growth of fibrous connective tissue.

Free radicals. Chemically highly active substances that easily react with other molecules, forming their potentially dangerous changes and damage to all components of the cell.


Gene. A region of DNA that governs a certain hereditary characteristic; usually corresponds to one protein.

Gene expression. The process by which information encoded in genes (DNA) is converted into proteins and other cellular structures.

Genome of human. The overall picture of all human genetic material.

Genotype. The totality of all the genes of an organism of an individual, which is the hereditary basis. Characterizes a given individual (and not a species).

Gluconeogenesis. Metabolic energy-consuming process of glucose production from its decay products.

Glycemic index (GI). An indicator that reflects the rate of breakdown and conversion into glucose of a particular product. Glucose was chosen as the reference, which was assigned a value of 100.

Glycemic load (GL). An indicator that is the product of the content of available carbohydrates and the glycemic index.

Glycolysis. Metabolic process of breakdown of glucose with the production of energy in the form of ATP – a source of cellular energy.


Hormones. Substances produced in the body that act as agents of remote transmission of information through the bloodstream and affect the physiological activity of specific cells or organs, such as growth and metabolism.

Homeostasis. An ideal state of balance in which all body systems work and interact properly.

Hydrophilic molecule. A molecule that has a high affinity for water and is easily soluble in water.

Hydrophobic molecule. A molecule that repels water and thus does not dissolve in water.

Hyperplasia. Excessive growth of normal tissue.

Hypoxia. Lack of oxygen in tissues.


Isomers. Substances that have the same qualitative and quantitative composition (the same formula), but a different structure and, as a result, different properties.

Isotopes. Different forms of the same chemical element. Isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Inflammation. A response to injury or infection characterized by redness, localized fever, swelling, and pain.

Inhibitor. A substance that inhibits the activity of a certain enzyme or a certain biological process.

Interferon. A molecule that is active against viruses and cancer cells.

Intravenously. Introduction directly into a vein.

Invasion. The process of separating malignant cells from a tumor and invading surrounding tissue.

In vitro. Literally, «in glass». A test or study carried out outside a living organism.

In vivo. Literally, «inside a living organism». An analysis that evaluates the biological process that takes place inside the body.

Ion. An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electrical charge as a result of the loss or gain of one or more electrons.


Kinase. Signal protein that catalyzes the attachment of phosphate groups to other molecules such as proteins or lipids.


Lymph nodes. Small glands that filter out toxins, bacteria, and other harmful cells, including cancer cells.


Macronutrients. Nutrients needed in relatively large quantities. Includes carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The use of magnetic resonance of atoms in body tissues to create various sections or three-dimensional images of internal structures.

Mammosphere. Accumulation of breast cells; in tumors, the mammospheres consist of tumor-initiating cells.

Marker. Something that points to a particular process, state, or object.

Metabolism of cell. The set of cellular chemical processes that ensure the existence of the cell; mainly reactions in which a substance is either absorbed and incorporated into the body, or detoxified and excreted from the body.

Metastases. Secondary tumors, which are formed as a result of the spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to a new place.

Metastasis. Spread of a cancerous lesion from one organ to another.

Methylation. The covalent attachment of a methyl group to a protein, DNA, or other molecule.

Micronutrients. Nutrients that are required daily for the human body in relatively small amounts – less than 100 mg, while macronutrients are required in grams.

Mitochondria. Cellular organelle whose main cellular function is to generate energy by aerobic means.

Mitosis. The process of cell division.

Mitotoxicity. Suppression of the proliferative activity of cells (their ability to divide).

Morphology. The study of the shape or structure of cells, tissues, organs, or organisms.

Mutation. A change in the structure of a gene that can lead to a change in hereditary traits.


Natural killers (NK cells). Cytotoxic lymphocyte cells that are important for the innate immune response that kills pathogenic cells. NK cells also play an important role in killing cancer cells.

Necrosis. Unprogrammed cell death, in which cells break down and release their contents, causing inflammation. Necrotic cell death may result from injury or infection.

NED (no evidence of disease) see «Complete response».

Nutraceutical. A substance that is found in food but for therapeutic purposes is extracted and delivered at higher concentrations than is normally ingested in food.

Nutrients. Chemical substances necessary for the human body to function normally.


Oncogene. A gene whose activation, for example by mutation, increases the selective growth advantage of the cell to which it belongs.

Oncology. A branch of medical science dealing with tumors.

Open study. A clinical trial in which the investigators and participants are aware of the treatment (as opposed to a double-blind study).

Orally. Through the mouth, by swallowing.

Oxidants. All substances that exhibit an oxidizing effect on protein structures (for example, free radicals, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species).

Oxidation. A chemical reaction in which a molecule loses electrons.

Oxidative phosphorylation (OP). A set of biochemical reactions carried out in mitochondria, during which adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate are converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the main source of all energy processes in the body.

Oxidative stress. A condition in which the production of pro-oxidant elements exceeds the ability to eliminate them through defense mechanisms called antioxidants.

Overall survival (OS). The length of time since the diagnosis or initiation of treatment for a disease during which patients are still alive.


Palliative care. Treatment that aims to relieve the symptoms of a disease in patients in cases where there is no hope of a cure.

Partial response (PR). Reducing the sum of the diameters of the main foci by at least 30%, but less than 100%; however, there should be no signs of disease progression.

Phase I clinical trials. Clinical trial of a small group of people to determine the bioavailability, optimal dose, safety and first signs of effectiveness of a new therapy.

Phase II clinical trials. Clinical trials to investigate the effectiveness of a new treatment in a large number of people and to further evaluate the short-term side effects and safety of the new therapy.

Phase III clinical trials. Clinical trials that provide evidence for recommending broad clinical use of an investigational product.

Phenotype. The totality of all the signs and properties of an organism that are revealed in the process of individual development under given conditions and are the result of the interaction of the genotype with a complex of factors of the internal and external environment.

Placebo. A biologically inert substance that is given to the control group while the active substance is given to the experimental group.

Plasma of blood. The liquid (freed from cells) part of the blood.

Polyphenols. Natural plant components that act as antioxidants to protect cells from oxidative damage and also interfere with enzymes that promote cancer growth.

Prebiotics. Non-digestible food components that stimulate the growth and activity of beneficial gut bacteria.

Probiotics. Unlike antibiotics, they do not have a negative effect on the normal microflora, so they are widely used for the prevention and treatment of dysbacteriosis. They are able to increase the anti-infective resistance of the body, in some cases have an anti-allergic effect, regulate and stimulate digestion.

Progressive disease (PD). An increase by 20% or more in the sum of the diameters of the main tumor foci (at least 5 mm in total), or the appearance of one or more new foci.

Progression-free survival (PFS): The length of time until objective tumor progression or death, whichever comes first.

Proliferation. Growth of body tissue due to the multiplication of cells by division.

Prooxidants. Substances and factors that enhance the oxidation process.

Prospective study. An observational study over time, analyzing subsequent events and influences.


QoL. Evaluation of subjective indicators of the patient's quality of life – the level of pain, comfort and well-being of the patient.


Radiation therapy. The use of X-rays and other types of hard radiation to destroy malignant cells and tissues.

Randomized study. A clinical trial in which patients are randomly assigned to treatment groups and have the same chance of receiving an investigational or control drug (placebo).

Reactive oxygen species (ROS). All oxygen-containing free radicals.

Redox reaction. A chemical reaction in which electrons are removed from one molecule or atom and transferred to another molecule or atom. In such a reaction, one substance is oxidized (loses electrons), and the other is reduced (gains electrons).

Reduction. A chemical reaction in which a molecule acquires electrons.

Remission. In oncology, the disappearance or reduction of signs of a disease. Distinguish between complete and partial remission. With complete remission, both the observed symptoms of the disease and all its signs, determined in the course of standard laboratory tests, disappear.

Retrospective study. An observational study of previous events and influences based on the medical records of a group of patients.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA). A single stranded ribonucleic acid.

Ribosomes. Intracellular organelles that carry out protein synthesis.


Selectivity index. Ratio of IC50 of normal cells to IC50 of cancer cells. Determines the degree of selective action of the substance on tumor cells compared to normal cells.

Serum of blood (blood serum). Blood plasma lacking fibrinogen.

Solid tumor. A tumor that has not developed from the cells of the hematopoietic system.

Spontaneous. Arising due to internal causes, without direct influence from the outside.

Stable disease (SD). Failure to meet the criteria for a complete or partial response in the absence of disease progression.

Stroma. The main supporting structure of organs. Connective tissue framework, the basis of cell and organ tissues.

Sublingual. Under tongue.

Suppressor genes. Tumor suppressors (p53, Rb, APC, BRCA) are genes whose products control cell division. Suppressor products inhibit cell division.

Survival median. The time by which 50% of patients die.

Synergy. The effect of mutual multiplication of therapeutic action.


Telomere. The terminal region of a chromosome that plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the chromosome.

Terminal cancer. The last stage of the disease, which is an irreparable, uncontrolled process of distribution and growth of tumor cells in the body.

Therapeutic index. The ratio of the toxic dose of a drug to its therapeutic dose. The therapeutic index reflects the level of drug safety. The therapeutic index of conventional cytotoxic drugs ranges from 1.4-1.8; this means that an overdose can lead to fatal consequences for the patient.

Tissue. A system of cells similar in origin, structure and function, as well as intercellular substances and structures associated with them.

Trace elements. Chemical elements that are required by the body in very low concentrations.

Transdermally. Through the skin.

Tumor regression. Spontaneous or treatment-induced reduction or disappearance of a neoplasm.


Vitamins. Organic (carbon-containing) compounds necessary for the normal physiological function of the body, which cannot be synthesized by it in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained from food.

Virus. A microorganism that cannot grow or reproduce outside of a living cell. Viruses take over living cells and use the processes of infected cells to survive and reproduce.


Xenobiotics. Chemical compounds that are foreign to the body. Xenobiotics may include dietary factors, toxins, pharmaceuticals, and pollutants.


AGE – advanced glycation endproduct.

ALDH – aldehyde dehydrogenase.

ATP – adenosine triphosphate.

ATRA – all-trans-retinoic acid.

CSC – cancer stem cells.

DADS – dialyl disulfide.

DATS – diallyl trisulfide.

DHA – docosahexaenoic acid (ω-3).

DHEA – dehydroepiandrosterone.

DNA – desoxynucleic acid.

DIM – diindolylmethane.

ECM – extracellular matrix.

EGCG – epigallocatechin gallate.

EMT – epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

EPA – eicosapentaenoic acid (ω-3).

ER – estrogen receptor.

FDA – US Food and Drug Administration.

GI – gastrointestinal tract.

GI50 (growth inhibitory 50%) – the concentration of a substance that causes a 50% suppression of cancer cell proliferation.

HDL – high density lipoproteins.

I3C – indole-3-carbinol.

IBC – inflammatory breast cancer.

IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) – the concentration of a substance that causes a 50% suppression of the activity under study.

IU – international unit.

NK – immune cells «Natural Killers».

TNBC – triple-negative breast cancer.

MET – mesenchymal-epithelial transition.

MUFA – monounsaturated fatty acids.

NSAID – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

PR – progesterone receptor.

PRAL (potential renal acid load) is an indicator of the acid-forming ability of food products.

PUFA – polyunsaturated fatty acids.

RDA (recommended dietary allowance) – the recommended daily intake of nutrients from food.

RNA – ribonucleic acid.

RNI (recommended nutrient intake) – the recommended nutrient intake that meets the needs of 95% of the population.

ROS – reactive oxygen species.

SFA – saturated fatty acids.

SHBG – sex hormone-binding globulin.

WHO – World Health Organization.


mg – milligram (1/1'000 gram)

mL – milliliter (1/1'000 Liter)

mmHg – millimeters of mercury

mM – millimol/Liter

μg – microgram (1/1'000'000 gram)

μM – micromoles/Liter

nM – nanomol/Liter

a tablespoon – about 13-17 mL

a glass – about 200 mL

tab – tablet

cups – a cup (approximately 120 mL)

tsp – a teaspoon (about 3.5-5 mL)

equiv – an equivalent human dosage based on animal studies.

Useful links.

US National Institutes of Health.

US Department of Agriculture.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A free version of the MedLine resource, which is a text database of medical and biological publications.
Created by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) based on the US National Library of Medicine (NLM).
PubMed documents medical and biological articles from specialized peer-reviewed literature and also provides links to full-text articles.
Search results can be selected using several filters.

Web of Science
The Web of Science (WoS) system is a collection of several databases that is operated and developed by the US Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Today it is the world's most authoritative analytical and citation database of journal articles.

A collection of practical recommendations from cancer centers in the United States.

Open database on chemistry. Information on chemical structures, identifiers, chemical and physical properties, biological activity, patents, health, safety, toxicity data and more.

Medicine guide.

Database on the interaction of various anticancer substances.

Natural Medicines
The most detailed, reliable and up-to-date information about natural remedies.

European Pharmacopoeia
A database that provides information about a given substance or a general method of analysis.

Database of anti-cancer plant natural substances.

Herbal Medicine Interaction
Library of the interaction of herbal preparations.

Database of nutritional supplements.

US Food and Drug Administration.

European Food Safety Authority.

Food database. The content of vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, toxins and other substances in foods, their glycemic index, acid load and a lot of other food information. Links to databases of other countries.

Reference data.

Periodic table of chemical elements

Periodic table of chemical elements Open in new window