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Differences between normal and cancer cells

Cell structure
The cell's DNA functions normally.
The structure of the DNA of the cell is damaged or read with violations.
Mitochondria are fully functional.
The number of mitochondria can be changed, and their activity is significantly reduced.
Cell metabolism
Almost all energy is produced by the oxidation reaction of pyruvate in mitochondria.
The end product of pyruvate metabolism is water and carbon dioxide.
A significant part of the energy is produced by the pyruvate fermentation reaction in the cytoplasm.
The end product of pyruvate metabolism is, to a large extent, lactic acid.
The building material for creating a new cell comes mainly from outside.
The building material for creating a new cell is produced, to a large extent, inside the cell.
Glucose intake is adequate.
Glucose consumption increased.
The cell is differentiated and has a specialized functional purpose.
The cell is not differentiated or poorly differentiated.
Enzymes and hormones act in a balanced way.
Hyperactive or hypoactive action of enzymes and hormones.
The usual level of activity of heat shock proteins.
Increased activity of heat shock proteins.
Cell division
Corresponds to the current conditions and is controlled by the requirements of the cell environment.
Poorly managed or unmanaged.
Cells divide in an orderly manner to produce more cells only when the body needs them.
Cells are continuously dividing without the need for renewal, without structural order and control; excess cells form a mass of tissue called a tumor.
Cell death
The mechanism of suicide triggered by mitochondria works.
The activity of mitochondria is suppressed, the cell does not die on its own.
Cell membrane
No anomalies.
Covered with a layer of mucus, and when metastasizing also fibrin.
No/presence of specific antigens on the membrane.
The number of adhesion molecules and signal receptors is reduced.
The number of insulin receptors is increased.
Acidity index
Inside the cell: pH 7.0-7.4.
Outside the cell, the indicator is slightly more alkaline: pH 7.4.
Inside the cell: pH 7.1-7.5.
Outside the cell, the indicator is slightly acidic: pH 6.3-7.0.
Free radicals
They are present in some quantity.
Increased amount of oxidants and other aggressive and toxic substances.
Transmembrane potential
Normal level.
Reduced level.
Electrolyte balance
The natural ratio in the cell of internal and external electrolytes (potassium and magnesium versus sodium and calcium).
There is often an imbalance.
Molecular oxygen
Present in sufficient quantity.
Participates in internal chemical reactions.
Not enough.
Promotes cell death.
Growth factors
Function at normal metabolic levels for self-production at a controlled rate.
Hyperactivity and/or overproduction of growth factors.
Blood vessels
Tissue has a built-in, ordered system of blood vessels.
The vascular system is disordered, immature and highly permeable.
The temperature of the tumor tissue is slightly elevated *.